Kakuichi Institute is deeply interested in the leading edge science that is reevaluating what we know about water, with potential for major revolutions in energy and health. Kakuichi Institute Advisory Board member Dr. Gerald Pollack has been a pioneer in this field, and has published several books on the subject, including Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life (2001) and The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor (2013) that look into Exclusion Zone (EZ) water, otherwise known as structured, or fourth phase water, and the wider implications of this heretofore undiscovered property of water. See below for summaries of various studies on these topics:
The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy and Health, an article by Gerald Pollack
EZ water should rehydrate tissues better than ordinary water because of its higher dipole moment... Since EZs contain masses of separated charges, or large dipoles, EZ water should hydrate cells better than ordinary water. That’s why EZ water may particularly promote good health.
Exclusion zone as intermediate between ice and water
The principal finding of these experiments is that a transient 270-nm peak in the absorption spectrum appears during the course of melting. The melting ice eventually transitions into bulk water, but passes through a phase that absorbs at 270 nm. Water with an absorption peak at 270 nm is characteristic of exclusion-zone water (Zheng et al. , Chai et al.). Hence, it appears possible that melting ice passes through the EZ phase before reverting to bulk water.
Unexpected Presence Of Solute-free Zones At Metal-water Interfaces
Here we found that exclusion zones also exist next to various metal surfaces. Among them, zinc showed the widest EZs as well as the highest surface coverage.
An interesting feature of the results was that little oxidation occurred in zinc regions containing exclusion zones, while considerable oxidation was seen in regions in between those exclusion zones. Hence, it appears that the oxidation may be caused by currents flowing from the water to the zinc surface in regions between the pocket EZs. That might explain the spotty oxidation that is often seen.
A notable feature is that this positive-negative pair constitutes a battery, in the same way that various gels and polymers show near-surface battery features. The presence of a "battery" next to various metal surfaces may have important implications for corrosion and also perhaps for catalysis.
Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces
Nafion strips on a glass substrate generate EZs that can combine with other EZs as long as the distances separating the strips are less than approximately 100 micrometers. The demonstrated ability of EZs to combine implies that continuous EZs can be created by using minimal amounts of starter material spaced judiciously. This feature has direct implications for water purification technology.
Charge-based Forces At The Nafion-water Interface
The results obtained here imply that separated charges in aqueous solutions may exert significant force. Such forces are unexpected. A common presumption is that large-scale separated charges do not exist in nature; or, if they do, they must act over short range only. However, the exclusion-zone phenomenon demonstrates that charges are indeed naturally separated, and that those separated charges can create substantial force.
Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implications for energetics of water
We observed sustained axial flow through tubes immersed in water... The flow appears to be associated with recently discovered interfacial phase of water, which lines the insides of the tubes. This phase of water builds from electromagnetic energy absorbed by water from the surrounding environment. That absorbed energy may power the observed flow.
Effect Of Particle Diameter On Exclusion-Zone Size
Particles and solutes are excluded from the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces, leaving large microsphere-free regions known as exclusion zones (EZs)... Results showed a direct relation between bead size and EZ size over the full range of bead diameter, implying a similar relation for smaller particles or molecules, perhaps extending beyond the resolution of the light microscope.
EZs are by no means constant in size. They depend on various factors, not the least of which is the characteristic dimension of the nucleating surface.
New method of water purification based on the particle-exclusion phenomenon
Colloidal particles in suspension are excluded from the vicinity of various hydrophilic surfaces... The experimental results suggest that particle exclusion may provide a new framework for water purification from both organic and inorganic matter, as well as from harmful pathogens.
Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life
We found that incident radiant energy, including UV, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths, induces exclusion-zone growth...
Water in the exclusion zone is negatively charged, while the bulk-water region beyond the exclusion zone contains positive charges. The potential difference between the two regions is 100 to 200 mV, depending on the particular hydrophilic surface.
Can water store charge?
The results raise a number of questions that warrant further pursuit. At the very least, they open the possibility that ordinary water might have the capacity not only to store charge but to permit effective recovery of charge. Water may well be an unexpectedly effective charge-storage medium.
Origin of microbial life hypothesis: a gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics
The hypothesis is proposed that pre-biotic bacterial cell(s) and the first cells capable of growth/division did not require a cytoplasmic membrane. A gel-like microscopic structure less than a cubic micrometer may have had a dual role as both an ancient pre-cytoplasm and a boundary layer to the higher-entropy external environment. The gel pre-cytoplasm exposed to radiant energy, especially in the infrared (IR) region of the EM spectrum resulted in the production of an exclusion zone (EZ) with a charge differential (-100 to -200 mV) and boundary that may have been a possible location for the latter organization of the first cytoplasmic membrane. Pre-biotic cells and then-living cells may have used hydrogen as the universal energy source, and thermosynthesis in their bioenergetic processes.
Surfaces and interfacial water: evidence that hydrophilic surfaces have long-range impact
It is generally thought that the impact of surfaces on the contiguous aqueous phase extends to a distance of no more than a few water-molecule layers... We report here that colloidal and molecular solutes suspended in aqueous solution are profoundly and extensively excluded from the vicinity of various hydrophilic surfaces. The width of the solute-free zone is typically several hundred microns. Such large exclusion zones were observed in the vicinity of many types of surface.
Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life
Tthe charge-separation phenomenon identified here may be something akin to an initial step in photosynthesis — a kind of “generic” first step that occurs next to many hydrophilic surfaces rather than only next to those specific to green plants or bacteria. This process could represent not only a potentially significant energetic pathway that may be broadly relevant for nature, but also a central protagonist for the origin of life.